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She learns that it is a boy, and is apparently a couple months older than she thought. Bellamy is called to Chicago to meet with his supervisor.
While there he is cornered by the mysterious woman, who says Bellamy can be her eyes and ears in Arcadia, or he can join the rest of the Returned in seclusion.
Bellamy then remembers that he was shot through the heart during the interrogation. Fred contemplates suicide but his mother stops him.
Dan Lerner. The mysterious woman tells Bellamy that he must track all future Returned and report to her. He and Sheriff Langston check out Caleb's hunting shack after hearing reports of someone possibly living in it, although Elaine is certain he hasn't returned and Jacob has only sensed his grandmother.
A man named Arthur Holmes later shows up there. He is a Returned who died in He differs from others, in that he is ill, whereas the rest are completely healthy.
Holmes remembers a fire. Meanwhile, Tom decides to protect Rachael, after seeing her sonogram, and resigns as church pastor.
His ex-wife, Janine, suggests he start his own church. Janine also decides to return home.
Bellamy gets Jacob to admit that he knows Bellamy is a Returned, and they agree to keep it a secret. Henry takes Margaret to the Langston factory.
Devastated, she blames him for giving up and letting it go to ruin. She later returns alone and, inside, digs up the floor to reveal a lot of buried human bones.
Tom begins to perform a baptism on his new church members, one of whom soon finds a skull in the riverbed nearby. Sheriff Langston is alerted, and asks the coroner to involve Maggie.
She arrives on scene and discerns that the remains are those of six bodies, only the six are two sets of three different people.
She surmises that Jacob was not the first Returned. These bones date back at least 40 years. She also added that the remains came from elsewhere.
The sheriff sets out upstream to look for a dumpsite. Bellamy, believing he is a Returned, asks advice from Tom, who suggests that he find his body.
Bellamy dupes those he reports to into believing he has a Returned, by offering himself. The mysterious woman says that, if he gives solid evidence, he can view his body.
The sheriff has recognized a bit of cloth found at a bridge and goes to the factory, where he finds another small bone. While studying the remains at her clinic, Maggie believes they are those of murder victims and calls her father.
She shows Bellamy three femur bones that have an identical gash on them, suggesting the person returned twice and was killed again each time.
As they discuss the bones, a team arrives to take them away, having been reported by Bellamy. He is shocked when shown his body in a bag.
Carl, the Sheriff's Deputy, is tired of being bullied and put down by his obnoxious Returned brother, Mikey, and finally shoots him dead.
Almost immediately after he buries the body in the basement, Mikey comes back home. John Stuart Scott.
In , a man wearing a leg brace is lynched by a crowd, which includes Margaret when she was younger.
In the present, Margaret suggests that it is time for Jacob to return to school. His parents think it is too soon, but Jacob says he is ready.
Rachael collapses in the grocery store and is taken to Maggie's clinic for examination. She is told that her baby is growing at twice the normal rate.
Janine tells Tom that, given the circumstances, Rachael is welcome to stay in their home. Margaret decides to get the whole family together for dinner.
Jacob insists that Barbara be included. Margaret goes to Fred and makes him promise to come, and Henry reaches out to Barbara.
Bellamy knows from Maggie's analysis that two of the sets of bones belong to a black man and a man who would have walked with a limp. Bellamy searches old microfiche newspaper records for stories about the Langston factory.
He finds a story about a trucking accident with a photo that includes a man with a leg brace and Arthur Holmes.
At Margaret's dinner, the wine flows freely and many accusations are made. Deputy Carl is in an accident and it is shown that many Returned have the cough Holmes had.
Margaret tells Jacob a story about how she found out how to kill the Returned for good. Fred shows Bellamy the bone he found under the factory, and they deduce that Margaret dumped the bones in the river.
Bellamy theorizes that a fire killed the workers, not a truck accident, while Fred suggests that maybe year-old secrets should remain buried.
Several of the Returned are coming down with a virus, including Mikey, Deputy Carl's brother. Maggie tells Carl that without antivirals, his brother may die and vanish as Holmes did, which gives Carl an idea.
Maggie discovers that Bellamy is the link to the government, and asks him to use his connection to see what they know about the cough.
Bellamy calls the mysterious woman, but she offers no help. Carl withholds the antivirals from his brother, who says while dying, "I don't want to be here," and then vanishes.
Elaine and Maggie talk to Barbara over drinks and even though Maggie finds it odd that her mother is about her same age, she likes her as a person.
Barbara and Fred get back together, which upsets Margaret, and Margaret later asks Barbara to walk with her. Barbara tells Margaret that she is carrying a great deal of guilt and feels the hatred of her friends and family.
Margaret says she knows why they returned, which is to pay for their sins. She tells Barbara that if she chooses to stop living, she will vanish and not return.
She does so, which is witnessed by Elaine. Elaine tells Maggie and they see that Barbara's blood sample has vanished as well.
Rachael and Bellamy also contract the virus. In a flashback, the government woman is shown sitting in the wreckage of a plane crash when she was younger.
Bellamy meets with the government woman to find out more about the virus he has. He is given a drug that eases the symptoms and delays the effect of the virus, but learns there is no cure.
The woman notices the crescent birthmark on Bellamy's neck, and remembers watching the interview of Camille Thompson. The woman says she is a statistician who is looking for patterns that might explain the Returned.
Later, Bellamy is rummaging through the woman's office, and sees a note where she has identified him as Robert Thompson, an infant who died in the Arcadia flood in , then returned in Chicago in A sign on the office door identifies the government woman as Angela Forrester.
Bellamy then meets with his sister, Jenny Thompson, at the government compound, having heard that their Returned parents caught the virus and vanished.
Maggie tells Fred about Elaine seeing Barbara vanish. She confronts Margaret, who denies she was there and says that Elaine must be mistaken.
Fred visits Elaine, and says he believes she saw what she saw. Meanwhile, Elaine's brother Ray has organized a separatist movement for the "true living", and they are meeting at the restaurant to discuss how to handle the problem of the Returned.
Bellamy is released from the compound with a day supply of the drug. Before leaving he hides his cell phone in a drawer and later tries to determine its location.
He gives some of the drug to Maggie to use as she feels appropriate. Elsewhere, Henry brings Jacob to the furniture factory and discusses plans to restore it.
There he meets a man named Brian Addison who is interested in buying the property, but Henry says it is not for sale. Brian then asks if Henry needs an investor, and gives him a card.
After Henry calls the man later, Brian shares the news with a younger Returned man he calls "Grandpa". Rachael dreams about the man known as "Grandpa" being trapped in the factory fire.
Margaret wakes up abruptly, apparently having had the same dream. Brian meets with the Langstons to discuss his factory investment, and Margaret offers to have dinner with Brian.
Ray meets Deputy Carl at the restaurant, and tells him about the True Living. Ray discusses the group's concerns that the Returned will outnumber the other citizens of Arcadia by next year.
Carl attends the next meeting and tells the story about Mikey, firing up the group. At the end of the meeting, Carl notices that Ray has mysteriously caught the virus that the Returned have.
At the hospital, Marty and Maggie offer the drug to Rachael, who appears to be getting worse, but they admit they don't know what effect the drug will have on the baby.
Later, Tom tries to convince Rachael to take the drug, but after time to think, Rachael refuses. Maggie confronts Marty, asking how he is so sure that the drug will work, and Marty finally tells her that he is a Returned.
Janine is strangely at peace with Rachael's decision and refers to the baby as "ours". Margaret returns from dinner with Brian to his home.
While Brian is out of the room, Margaret sees an old photo of Grandpa in a frame, recognizing him as the man in the fire from her dream. She tells Brian she has to go, and abruptly leaves.
Grandpa emerges from another room, and chastises Brian for bringing Margaret to the house. Back at the hospital, Rachael has made a miraculous recovery.
Later, Margaret pays her a visit. Constantine Makris. Margaret goes through some old photos with Jacob, and finds one of the man who died in the factory fire that identifies him as William Kirk.
She visits Brian again, tells him the deal is off, and warns him to stay away from her family. Henry is disappointed, and later visits Brian's home and meets William, unaware of what Margaret knows.
William tells Henry he used to work at the factory, after which Henry offers him a job getting the place ready for production and re-initiates the deal with Brian.
The anti-Returned hate is escalating and several citizens of Arcadia, fearing for the safety of their families, relinquish their claims and dump their returned family members in Pastor Tom's church.
Marty and Fred visit a small group of the True Living in the restaurant to find out their plans and issue a warning, with an angry Marty announcing to anyone within earshot that he is a Returned.
A concerned Elaine visits Ray in the hospital, and she is later joined by Fred. Maggie theorizes that Rachael's baby is the reason she recovered, and strongly believes the stem cells in Rachael's amniotic fluid can cure others suffering from the virus.
Rachael agrees to have some fluid extracted, which has Janine concerned. Maggie injects Ray with the stem cells and Ray says if he dies he wants to stay dead, stating that whoever returns in his body won't really be him.
After Rachael returns home, Janine lies and tells her that Tom wants her taken to Janine's sister's house for protection until the True Living threat blows over.
Tom later finds his house empty. Tom returns to the church where Marty is providing assistance to the many Returned there. Rachael calls Tom with Janine's phone and reveals Janine's lie.
Tom tells Rachael that he is in love with her, and instructs her to be quiet until he comes to get her.
Tom tells Marty he has to leave, just as a tear gas canister is thrown through a church window. Marty assists the Returned in escaping through the front door, while Tom leaves out the back.
A pickup truck peels away from the scene and strikes Tom, killing him. Deputy Carl gets out to view what he has done, then flees in his truck.
Ray recovers due to the stem cells. Maggie and Marty realize that they need to obtain more fluid but they don't know where Rachael is.
Marty's supply of the government drug has run out and he is again showing symptoms of the virus. Henry, Lucille and Margaret disagree about how to tell Jacob of Tom's death, but Jacob overhears their conversation through the air vents.
Henry tells Margaret that the factory deal is on again. Margaret goes to Fred and tells him to intervene in the deal because it is fraudulent.
Janine has been drugging Rachael to keep her asleep. Janine is told about Tom's death, and, when Rachael wakes up, shares the news with her.
Rachael discovers that Janine has locked the doors and is holding her there. Later, she knocks Janine out and leaves. Fred gives Henry back his check and tells him that Brian had planned to skip town with the money as revenge for his grandfather.
He also tells Henry that Margaret has been lying, and, if he doesn't believe it, to ask her what happened to Barbara.
Maggie and Marty remember that the government has Rachael's former body at their compound, and the fluid in it would still be usable.
They ask Angela Forrester to get them a sample. She tries but is overruled by her superior, who wants "nature to take its course" let the Returned die.
Marty is told that there is no more of the drug and that he cannot see Jenny for fear of passing the virus. Henry confronts Margaret about the factory fire, and she admits that 12 people were allowed to die in a locked varnish room to keep the fire from spreading and ruining the whole factory.
She also admits to helping Barbara disappear. Henry tells Margaret to leave, saying she has been "dead for decades. Fred determines that Carl is the culprit in Tom's hit-and-run death and arrests him.
Henry, Lucille, and Jacob attend a vigil for Tom at the church. The True Living arrive and want to start trouble.
One of them throws Henry to the ground. Margaret arrives and stands next to Jacob, who surveys the scene and tells her that he feels he is putting his parents in danger and therefore it is time to leave.
They leave together, and Lucille desperately tries to find Jacob. A storm hits Arcadia, and a mysterious stranger emerges, disheveled, from the woods.
Stumbling into Elaine's restaurant, she helps him out of his bloodied shirt, and sees a strange tree pattern on his back.
Henry, Fred and Marty search for Jacob, insisting that Lucille stay home though she badly wants to go out and look for her son.
Lucille confides in Maggie that she still feels responsible for Jacob's drowning, having fallen asleep with him on that fateful day, and says she cannot bear to lose him again.
Margaret has taken Jacob to an old barn, and flashbacks show her as a young woman in this same barn, sitting and weeping while dressed in her wedding gown.
She tells Jacob about how she was forced to marry Mr. Langston against her will, but did so to protect her father, a troubled foreman at the furniture factory.
Henry and Fred arrive and distract Margaret, allowing Marty take Jacob away. Margaret admits to telling Barbara how to "let herself go" and disappear, having witnessed one of the fire victims doing this before being executed for the fourth time.
She says she planned to help Jacob disappear, but he ultimately wanted to go back to his parents. She also tells them the truth about their father and how she hates the Langston traits in her two sons.
Maggie tells Marty she has finished the development of the stem cell serum, and that he can now be completely cured of the virus.
Marty then calls in a favor to the government and is reunited with his sister, Jenny. At the restaurant, Jenny sees the mysterious stranger, and recognizes him as "Preacher James" from the s.
Henry and Lucille have an argument and they decide it would be best if he left home for a while. Marty goes to a bare patch of land with a crescent shape in the woods.
From the ground, cicadas emerge and morph into a flock that creates a tree shape in the air. James walks up and tells Marty he died while trying to rescue him from the flood.
He suggests to Marty that the full story of the Returned has yet to be told. Vincent Misiano. After hearing a story from Jenny about how Preacher James healed people and brought the dead to life back in the s, Marty becomes convinced that James was a con man.
This appears to be confirmed when James holds an assembly and returns a "dead" husband to his wife, even though both he and Marty saw the confused man walking in the woods a bit earlier.
Margaret goes to the government center where the unclaimed Returned are being held. People recognize her and appear to fear her.
A government agent confronts Margaret, wondering why she is choosing to stay there. Rachael arrives in Maggie's office having contractions, and tells the story of how she had to escape from Janine.
Maggie says they are Braxton-Hicks contractions, but does believe that Rachael's baby could arrive any day. Rachael visits Tom's grave with Elaine.
Henry is staying with Fred while he and Lucille are having their troubles. He calls Lucille and they arrange a meeting at a restaurant to talk.
While Lucille is waiting, her watch stops. Marty awakes from a nap at the station and sees what turns out to be a vision of Henry. After telling Fred, they run out and find Henry slumped at the wheel of his truck, dead from a heart attack.
Lucille is devastated, as is Margaret when Fred calls her with the news. Lucille wants Preacher James to try and bring Henry back, as he did with the other man, but James says he can only do so with Marty's help.
Marty is still skeptical, but he goes with James and Fred out to a field, where James has dug a shallow grave.
James insists they must kill him right there so he can get Henry and bring him back. Marty refuses, but Fred quickly shoots and kills James.
The next day, James shows up at the Langstons' door with an alive Henry, who is embraced by Lucille and Jacob. James tells Marty that he was an evil man back in his day, but everything changed when he sacrificed himself to try and save the infant Robert from the flood.
He believes he can now do much good, and confides in Marty that he heard the pleas of many other souls when he was rescuing Henry from the dead.
While in a trance-like state, the Returned of Arcadia all take a morning walk into town, stopping in front of Twain's and looking toward an upstairs window revealed to be Rachael's room.
As Rachael is shown having contractions, Fred fires his gun, snapping all the Returned out of their trance.
Henry and Marty try to figure out what happened, and meet with Preacher James to discuss it. In conversation, Henry tells the story about Margaret making Barbara disappear, and James is taken aback.
Rice , a Baptist evangelist, the resurrection of Jesus was part of the plan of salvation and redemption by atonement for man's sin.
Although the Resurrection was an historical event that could be verified by the sign of the empty tomb and by the reality of the apostles' encounters with the risen Christ, still it remains at the very heart of the mystery of faith as something that transcends and surpasses history.
For Christians, including some scholars, the resurrection is taken to have been a concrete, material resurrection.
Wright in his book The Resurrection of the Son of God , "There can be no question: Paul is a firm believer in bodily resurrection.
He stands with his fellow Jews against the massed ranks of pagans; with his fellow Pharisees against other Jews. Blomberg , there are sufficient arguments for the historicity of the resurrection.
Easter or Easter Sunday is the preeminent Christian feast that celebrates the resurrection of Jesus, and, according to Susan J.
White, "is clearly the earliest Christian festival. Easter is linked to the Passover and Exodus from Egypt recorded in the Old Testament through the Last Supper and crucifixion that preceded the resurrection.
According to the New Testament, Jesus gave the Passover meal a new meaning, as he prepared himself and his disciples for his death in the upper room during the Last Supper.
He identified the loaf of bread and cup of wine as his body soon to be sacrificed and his blood soon to be shed.
For Christ, our Passover lamb, has been sacrificed"; this refers to the Passover requirement to have no yeast in the house and to the allegory of Jesus as the Paschal lamb.
The New Testament writings contend that the resurrection was "the beginning of His exalted life"  [note 12] as Christ and Lord.
Hurtado notes that soon after his death, Jesus was called Lord Kyrios , which "associates him in astonishing ways with God.
According to Hurtado, powerful religious experiences were an indispensable factor in the emergence of Christ-devotion.
Ehrman notes that both Jesus and his early followers were apocalyptic Jews , who believed in the bodily resurrection, which would start when the coming of God's Kingdom was near.
Ehrman's "tentative suggestion" is that only a few followers had visions, including Peter, Paul and Mary. They told others about those visions, convincing most of their close associates that Jesus was raised from the dead, but not all of them.
It has long been argued that the New Testament writings contain two different Christologies, namely a "low" or adoptionist Christology, and a "high" or "incarnation Christology.
The chronology of the development of these early Christologies is a matter of debate within contemporary scholarship.
According to the "evolutionary model"  c. Since the s, the late datings for the development of a "high Christology" have been contested,  and a majority of scholars argue that this "High Christology" existed already before the writings of Paul.
According to Ehrman, these two Christologies existed alongside each other, calling the "low Christology" an " adoptionist Christology, and "the "high Christology" an "incarnation Christology.
Jesus' death was interpreted as a redemptive death "for our sins," in accordance with God's plan as contained in the Jewish scriptures.
According to Dunn, the appearances to the disciples have "a sense of obligation to make the vision known. He contends that the more detailed accounts of the resurrection are also secondary and do not come from historically trustworthy sources, but instead belong to the genre of the narrative types.
This revitalized the disciples, starting-off their new mission. According to Christian proto-orthodoxy , Peter was the first to who Jesus appeared, and therefore the rightful leader of the Church.
The appearance of Jesus to Paul convinced him that Jesus was the risen Lord and Christ, who commissioned him to be an apostle to the Gentiles.
Fundamental to Pauline theology is the connection between Christ's resurrection, and redemption.
If there is no resurrection of the dead, then Christ has not been raised; if Christ has not been raised, then our preaching is in vain and your faith is in vain [ He is the first of all those who will rise.
Death came because of what a man did. Rising from the dead also comes because of what a man did. Because of Adam, all people die. So because of Christ, all will be made alive.
The kerygma of 1 Corinthians states that "Christ died for our sins. Traditionally, this kerygma is interpreted as meaning that Jesus' death was an atonement or ransom for, or propitiation or expiation of, God's wrath against humanity because of their sins.
With Jesus death, humanity was freed from this wrath. More recent scholarship has raised several concerns regarding these interpretations.
According to E. Sanders , who initiated the so-called New Perspective on Paul , Paul saw the faithful redeemed by participation in Jesus' death and rising.
McGrath notes that Paul "prefers to use the language of participation. One died for all, so that all died 2 Corinthians This is not only different from substitution , it is the opposite of it.
Paul insists that salvation is received by the grace of God; according to Sanders, this insistence is in line with Judaism of ca.
Observance of the Law is needed to maintain the covenant, but the covenant is not earned by observing the Law, but by the grace of God.
The Apostolic Fathers , discussed the death and resurrection of Jesus, including Ignatius 50— ,  Polycarp 69— , and Justin Martyr — The understanding of the Greek Fathers of the death and resurrection of Jesus as an atonement is the "classic paradigm" of the Church Fathers ,   who developed the themes found in the New Testament.
During the first millennium AD, the ransom theory of atonement was the dominant metaphor, both in eastern and western Christianity, until it was replaced in the west by Anselmus' satisfaction theory of atonement.
It entails the idea that God deceived the devil,  and that Satan, or death, had "legitimate rights"  over sinful souls in the afterlife , due to the fall of man and inherited sin.
The ransom theory was first clearly enunciated by Irenaeus c. Yet, humans have a spark of the true divine nature within them, which can be liberated by gnosis knowledge of this divine spark.
This knowledge is revealed by the Logos , "the very mind of the supreme God," who entered the world in the person of Jesus.
Nevertheless, the Logos could not simply undo the power of the Demiurg, and had to hide his real identity, appearing as a physical form, thereby misleading the Demiurg, and liberating humankind.
Origen — introduced the idea that the devil held legitimate rights over humans, who were bought free by the blood of Christ.
Following the conversion of Constantine and the Edict of Milan in , the ecumenical councils of the 4th, 5th and 6th centuries, that focused on Christology , helped shape the Christian understanding of the redemptive nature of resurrection, and influenced both the development of its iconography, and its use within Liturgy.
Belief in bodily resurrection was a constant note of the Christian church in antiquity. Augustine of Hippo accepted it at the time of his conversion in The 5th-century theology of Theodore of Mopsuestia provides an insight into the development of the Christian understanding of the redemptive nature of resurrection.
The crucial role of the sacraments in the mediation of salvation was well accepted at the time. In Theodore's representation of the Eucharist , the sacrificial and salvific elements are combined in the "One who saved us and delivered us by the sacrifice of Himself".
Theodore's interpretation of the Eucharistic rite is directed towards the triumph over the power of death brought about by the resurrection.
The emphasis on the salvific nature of the resurrection continued in Christian theology in the next centuries, e. When he had freed those who were bound from the beginning of time, Christ returned again from among the dead, having opened for us the way to resurrection" and Christian iconography of the ensuing years represented that concept.
Lorenzen finds "a strange silence about the resurrection in many pulpits". He writes that among some Christians, ministers and professors, it seems to have become "a cause for embarrassment or the topic of apologetics".
The historicity and origin of the resurrection of Jesus has been the subject of historical research and debate, as well as a topic of discussion among theologians.
The accounts of the Gospels, including the empty tomb and the appearances of the risen Jesus to his followers, have been interpreted and analyzed in diverse ways, and have been seen variously as historical accounts of a literal event, as accurate accounts of visionary experiences , as non-literal eschatological parables, and as fabrications of early Christian writers, among various other interpretations.
One hypothesis, for example, that Jesus did not die on the cross , that the empty tomb was the result of Jesus' body having been stolen , or, as was common with Roman crucifixions, that Jesus was never entombed.
Post- Enlightenment historians work with methodological naturalism , which precludes them from establishing miracles as objective historical facts.
According to R. Burridge, the majority consensus among biblical scholars is that the genre of the Gospels is a kind of ancient biography and not myth.
Sanders argues that a plot to foster belief in the Resurrection would probably have resulted in a more consistent story.
Paul's views of a bodily resurrection went against the thoughts of the Greek philosophers to whom a bodily resurrection meant a new imprisonment in a corporeal body, which was what they wanted to avoid — given that for them the corporeal and the material fettered the spirit.
Dunn notes that there is a great difference between Paul's resurrection appearance, and the appearances described in the Gospels.
Where "Paul's seeing was visionary [ The empty tomb and the post-resurrection appearances are never directly coordinated to form a combined argument.
According to Vermes, "[t]he strictly Jewish bond of spirit and body is better served by the idea of the empty tomb and is no doubt responsible for the introduction of the notions of palpability Thomas in John and eating Luke and John.
According to Raymond E. Brown , the body of Jesus was buried in a new tomb by Joseph of Arimathea in accordance with Mosaic Law , which stated that a person hanged on a tree must not be allowed to remain there at night, but should be buried before sundown.
Ehrman dismisses the story of the empty tomb; according to Ehrman, "an empty tomb had nothing to do with it [ Wright , however, emphatically and extensively argues for the reality of the empty tomb and the subsequent appearances of Jesus, reasoning that as a matter of history both a bodily resurrection and later bodily appearances of Jesus are far better explanations for the rise of Christianity than are any other theories, including those of Ehrman.
In the Catacombs of Rome , artists indirectly hinted at the resurrection by using images from the Old Testament such as the fiery furnace and Daniel in the Lion's den.
Depictions prior to the 7th century generally showed secondary events such as the Myrrhbearers at the tomb of Jesus to convey the concept of the resurrection.
An early symbol of the resurrection was the wreathed Chi Rho Greek letters representing the word "Khristos" or "Christ" , whose origin traces to the victory of emperor Constantine I at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge in , which he attributed to the use of a cross on the shields of his soldiers.
Constantine used the Chi Rho on his standard and his coins showed a labarum with the Chi Rho killing a serpent.
The use of a wreath around the Chi Rho symbolizes the victory of the resurrection over death, and is an early visual representation of the connection between the Crucifixion of Jesus and his triumphal resurrection, as seen in the 4th-century sarcophagus of Domitilla  in Rome.
Here, in the wreathed Chi Rho the death and Resurrection of Christ are shown as inseparable, and the Resurrection is not merely a happy ending tucked at the end of the life of Christ on earth.
Given the use of similar symbols on the Roman military banner , this depiction also conveyed another victory, namely that of the Christian faith: the Roman soldiers who had once arrested Jesus and marched him to Calvary now walked under the banner of a resurrected Christ.
The cosmic significance of the resurrection in Western theology goes back to Saint Ambrose , who in the 4th century said that "The universe rose again in Him, the heaven rose again in Him, the earth rose again in Him, for there shall be a new heaven and a new earth".
In art this was symbolized by combining the depictions of the resurrection with the Harrowing of Hell in icons and paintings.
A good example is from the Chora Church in Istanbul, where John the Baptist , Solomon and other figures are also present, depicting that Christ was not alone in the resurrection.
Resurrection of Christ , by Hans Memling , 15th century. Resurrection , by Luca Giordano , after Resurrection , by Hans Multscher , Resurrection , by Dieric Bouts , c.
Der Auferstanden , by Lucas Cranach , Piero della Francesca , 15th century. Women at the empty tomb , by Fra Angelico , — Lamentation at the Tomb , 15th century.
The resurrection of Jesus has long been central to Christian faith and appears within diverse elements of the Christian tradition, from feasts to artistic depictions to religious relics.
In Christian teachings, the sacraments derive their saving power from the passion and resurrection of Christ, upon which the salvation of the world entirely depends.
An example of the interweaving of the teachings on the resurrection with Christian relics is the application of the concept of " miraculous image formation " at the moment of resurrection to the Shroud of Turin.
Christian authors have stated the belief that the body around whom the shroud was wrapped was not merely human, but divine, and that the image on the shroud was miraculously produced at the moment of resurrection.
Arguments over death and resurrection claims occur at many religious debates and interfaith dialogues.
Christianity split from Judaism in the 1st century AD, and the two faiths have differed in their theology since. According to the Toledot Yeshu , the body of Jesus was removed in the same night by a gardener named Juda, after hearing the disciples planned to steal the body of Jesus.
Some Gnostics did not believe in a literal physical resurrection. The Islamic perspective is that Jesus was not crucified and will return to the world at the end of times.
The word "resurrection" is a metaphor that unfortunately has been taken literally. That's where the confusion begins.
In the New Testament the word for "resurrection" means literally "awakening," like waking up your kids in the morning. The New Testament says not that God "resurrected" Jesus from the dead, but that he "awoke" him.
Using metaphoric language, the New Testament says God awoke Jesus from the sleep of death and brought him into God's heavenly presence.
There's nothing here about an event in space and time. Resurrection doesn't mean coming back to life. The preaching of Jesus' resurrection was thus the proclamation that the new age had been ushered in": "The Structure and Criteria of Early Christian Beliefs" in Robinson and Koester, Trajectories, , From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Christian belief that God raised Jesus after his crucifixion. Holy Week. Session of Christ Salvation Jewish eschatology Christian eschatology.
Visions of Jesus. Vision theory Visions Religious experience. Empty tomb fringe theories. Stolen body Swoon Lost body Twin.
See also: Jewish eschatology and Resurrection of the dead. Main article: Apotheosis. Main article: Post-resurrection appearances of Jesus.
See also: Overview of resurrection appearances in the Gospels and Paul table. Main articles: Paul the Apostle and Jewish Christian.
Main article: Salvation in Christianity. Further information: Jesus in Christianity. Main article: Easter. Main article: Jewish Christian.
See also: Early High Christology. See also: Atonement in Christianity. Main articles: Great Commission , Apostles , and Christian mission.
Main articles: Saint Peter and Apostolic succession. Main article: Participation in Christ. Main article: Ransom theory of atonement.
Main article: Historicity and origin of the resurrection of Jesus. Main article: Empty tomb. Main article: Resurrection of Jesus in Christian art.
Further information: Judaism's view of Jesus. Main articles: Islamic view of Jesus' death and Jesus in Islam. According to the Bauer lexicon : "of Christ, and nearly always of his Messianic Advent in glory to judge the world at the end of this age".